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Roads

21.02.2008

The safest road to Hell is the gradual one - the gentle slope, soft underfoot, without sudden turnings, without milestones, without signposts.

C.S. Lewis

The safest road to Hell is the gradual one - the gentle slope, soft underfoot, without sudden turnings, without milestones, without signposts.

C.S. Lewis



Roads

 

Roads are essential for the advancement of civilization, as they are a major factor in goods transport (1) ...and an indispensable element in the movement of people. Roads are constructed so as to facilitate vehicular and pedestrian traffic both within and between towns. Roads connecting towns are of various types, and are named accordingly, in relation to their purpose or size (e.g. motorway, slip roads, dual carriageway, bypass, ring road) whereas those within towns (streets) are high streets, side streets, avenues, lanes, roundabouts, etc. Roads may also have construction elements like pavements, kerbs, gutters or crash barriers.
While planning and building a road it is necessary to take into consideration natural obstacles and ground levels (so as the gradients are sufficient for safe vehicle or foot travel), surface durability and maintenance costs, availability of materials and legal requirements. Considerable attention should be paid to safety and environmental factors, which involves (2) ...devising an adequate drainage system. and limiting noise and air pollution.

Road construction

The process of road construction on the construction site can be divided into surveying, clearing and earthworks, drainage and roadworks. These phases involve excavation, removing earth, rock, and vegetation, (3) ...constructing embankments and drainage elements , compacting and levelling each of the road layers, installing sewage, water and other utilities, and finally surfacing. The strata of road surfaces are as follows: subgrade course (soil), sub-base course, base course, binder course and wearing course, and their fill materials must be inorganic and non-plastic. e.g. crushed stone, gravel (4) ...or other granular layer, bituminous mixes, asphalt or cement bound mixture, asphalt concrete. The road surface can be rigid, semi-rigid, or flexible, and its pavements can be made of asphalt concrete and cement concrete, as well as gravel, slag, stone, or cobblestone.
Asphalt concrete is a widely used material, as it has many advantages concerning its plasticity, cost, low noise and maintenance. Nevertheless it is not as durable as concrete or pavers (rutting), melts in high temperatures, (5) ...and is not entirely eco-friendly due to some soil and water pollution. Cement concrete pavements, on the other hand, although initially much more expensive, (6) ...feature much more strength and durability , and can be more environmentally friendly in terms of noise pollution.

1. Przetłumacz poniższe zwroty na język polski. W którym miejscu w tekście (1)–(6) powinny się one znaleźć?

a) and an indispensable element in the movement of people ...i nieodzownym elementem dla przemieszczania się ludzi
b) and is not entirely eco-friendly ...nie jest całkowicie ekologiczny
c) constructing embankments and drainage elements ...budowa nasypów i elementów służących do odprowadzania wody
d) devising an adequate drainage system ...opracowanie odpowiedniego systemu odprowadzania wody
e) feature much more strength and durability ...cechują się większą wytrzymałością i trwałością
f) or other granular layer ...lub inna ziarnista warstwa

 

2. Dopasuj słowa z tekstu do odpowiednich definicji.

a. clearing ...6
b. compacting ...3
c. drainage ...9
d. excavation ...1
e. gradient ...4
f. levelling ...7
g. obstacle ...2
h. plasticity ...8
i. sewage ...5
j. utilities ...10

1. the act of digging out, removing earth, ore, coal by scooping.
2. something that blocks a road
3. pressing sth together to make it tight and solid
4.a slope or inline
5. system of carrying away waste water and human waste from buildings through underground pipes or passages
6. removing obstacles
7. making something the same height and parallel to the ground
8. quality of adapting to pressure and being moulded
9 removal of water from an area
10. services used by the public, e.g. electricity

3. Dopasuj antonimy
(słowa o przeciwstawnym znaczeniu)

a) adequate ...6
b) considerable ...5
c) durable ...9
d) ssential ...10
e) expensive ...8
f) indispensable ...1
g) natural ...2
h) rigid ...7
i) safe ...4
j) sufficient ...3

1. redundant
2. artificial
3. insufficient
4. hazardous
5. minor
6. inadequate
7. flexible
8. cost-effective
9. short-lived
10. unimportant

{mospagebreak}

4. Uzupełnij powyższe zdania odpowiednimi słowami z zad. 3.

1. How to get rid of ……………redundant data on your computer?
2. We need ……………sufficient time and money to deal with this problem.
3.……………hazardous and toxic substances are those chemicals present in the workplace which are capable of causing harm.
4. She was very strict and maintained ……………rigid control over her staff.
5. I didn’t do it properly but it was a relatively ……………minor/ unimportant error.
6. Chinese engineers have found a new way to build roads that should be quicker, easier and more ……………cost – effective than current methods.
7. No man is ……………indispensable

5. Słowotwórstwo. Wstaw słowo z nawiasu w odpowiedniej formie. Zwróć uwagę, że w niektórych sytuacjach słowa zmieniają znaczenie.

1. There are low levels of unemployment in ……………advanced – zaawansowanych industrial societies. (advancement)
2. The conference was very ……………constructive – konstruktywna (construction)
3. Parking is almost ……………unavailable – niedostępne near the station entrance. (availability)
4. You are ……………required by law to wear protective clothing. (requirement)
5. Our partnership has steadily ……………strengthened over the last few years. (strength)
6. They ordered pasta and ate ……………noisily(noise)
7. The teacher tried to explained the problem, but students were ……………inattentive – nieuważni (attention).
8. The plant ……………pollutes/ –ed, etc soil and water. (pollution)
9. Critics ……………maintain – twierdzą, utrzymują that these reforms will lead to a crisis. (maintenance)
10. “Gone with the Wind” is a deeply ……………moving – wzruszający, poruszjący film. (movement)

6. Odnajdź w tekście słowa i wyrażenia oznaczające:

1. ekologiczny – e……………environmentally
f……………friendly
2. krawężniki – k……………kerbs
3. na tych etapach odbywa się
– t……………these p……………phases
i……………involve
4. należy zwracać baczną uwagę
– c……………considerable a……………attention
s……………should b……………be
p……………paid
5. pod względem – i……………in
t……………therms o……………of
6. ronda – r……………roundabouts
7. ścieranie – w……………wearing
8. stosownie, odpowiednio
– a……………accordingly
9. transport samochodowy lub pieszy
v……………vehicle or
f……………foot t……………transport
10. warstwa wiążąca – b……………binder
c……………course
11. z powodu – d……………due
t……………to
12. zalet dotyczących – a……………advantages
c……………concerning

 


Aneta Kaproń

 



Artykuł zamieszczony 
w "Inżynierze Budownictwa", 
luty 2008
 


 

 

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