Have yourself a merry little Christmas,
Let your heart be light
From now on,
our troubles will be out of sight

Have yourself a merry little Christmas,
Make the Yule-tide gay,
From now on, 
our troubles will be miles away.

Have yourself a merry little Christmas,
Let your heart be light
From now on,
our troubles will be out of sight

Have yourself a merry little Christmas,
Make the Yule-tide gay,
From now on, 
our troubles will be miles away.



Someday soon we all may be together,
If the fates allow.
Until then,
we’ll have to muddle through somehow.

first sung by Judy Garland

 

Christmas atmosphere is present in Great Britain weeks before the actual festivities begin. The shop windows are full of Christmas decorations, with Father Christmas entertaining children in big shops as early as November. The Salvation Army plays music in the streets, entertaining shoppers, groups of singers sing carols and traditional Christmas songs, collecting money for charities. Children open their special sweet-filled Advent calendars and Christmas cards are sent. The latter custom is remarkably well established and widespread in the United Kingdom, as over a billion Christmas cards are sent every year (1) ……..and then hung on the walls or else adorn the mantelpiece adding to the Christmas spirit Additionally, traditional Christmas trees with lights, glass baubles and tinsel are put up in most British houses, while the walls, ceilings and doors are decorated with paper streamers as well as holly, ivy and mistletoe (2)……..The custom of doing up houses with greenery probably dates back to ancient Celtic Britain and Ireland

The day before Christmas, Christmas Eve, is a working day in the UK, although employers are expected to send the staff home a few hours earlier than on a regular workday. That day isn’t celebrated in quite as ceremonial a fashion as in Poland, although Christmas carols are also sung, and children hang stockings on the fireplace or at the foot of the bed for Father Christmas (also called Santa Claus) (3) …….., who climbs down the chimney, to fill with small presents, sweets, nuts, chocolate money and a tangerine; if the children have been bad in the previous year, they are likely to get a sack of cinders. Presents can also be placed beneath the Christmas tree, especially in a household of adults. Before bedtime, children leave Father Christmas a snack (4) ……..e.g. a pork pie, a can of beer, a glass of wine or sherry, some biscuits or mince pies. .

Some families attend midnight church services and the next morning, the actual Christmas Day, starts with opening presents and sometimes going to church again. Christmas Day also sees the most important meal of the festivities – traditional Christmas Dinner. It starts with people seated around the table pulling Christmas crackers (5) …….., which are colourful paper tubes containing party hats, small toys and terrible jokes . The dinner itself usually consists of roast turkey with stuffing, accompanied by roast potatoes, Brussels sprouts and gravy. The main course is followed by mince pies and Christmas pudding – a rich fruit cake. After the dinner, it is customary to watch television, especially the Queen’s Christmas Message to the Commonwealth. Finally, there is the last day of Christmas, Boxing Day (26th December) - its name probably derives from the old custom of handing out gifts of money or food (6) ……..inside boxes to poor people or workmen Boxing Day is also an important day for sport – football, rugby and horse racing and for groups of people to jump into the (cold) sea for charity.

British Christmas is an altogether more secular festival than the Polish one, with consumerism being much more in focus than faith and as such it is becoming a national holiday rather than a religious celebration. It is nevertheless still the most important time of the year, when people meet, enjoy the atmosphere and unite in merriment regardless of their ethnic and religious background. In recent years however, the multicultural nature of British society has led to some attempts (7) ……..– in the interests of political correctness – to minimise the ‘Christian’ element of the festival so as not to offend Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs. Ironically, the best place to buy that last-minute pint of milk on Christmas Day, is the Indian- or Pakistani-run corner shop which will probably be open. The Muslim or Hindu owner is sure to wish you A Very Merry Christmas!

 


1. W którym miejscu w tekście (1) – (7) powinny znaleźć się następujące fragmenty?

a). e.g. a pork pie, a can of beer, a glass of wine or sherry, some biscuits or mince pies.
b). – in the interests of political correctness –
c). The custom of doing up houses with greenery probably dates back to ancient Celtic Britain and Ireland
d). , which are colourful paper tubes containing party hats, small toys and terrible jokes
e). , who climbs down the chimney,
f). and then hung on the walls or else adorn the mantelpiece adding to the Christmas spirit
g). inside boxes to poor people or workmen

2. Znajdź w tekście tłumaczenia następujących wyrażeń. Zwróć uwagę na szczególną konstrukcję ich angielskich odpowiedników, oraz na użycie strony biernej.

a). aby Święty Mikołaj napełnił je drobnymi upominkami ……...for Father Christmas … to fill with small presents
b). gdzie konsumpcjonizm jest ważniejszy niż wiara.……...with consumerism being much more in focus than faith
c). już w listopadzie ……...as early as November
d). oczekuje się, że pracodawcy wyślą pracowników ……...employers are expected to send
e). prawdopodobne jest, że dostaną (one) worek popiołu ……...they are likely to get a sack of cinders
f). tak, aby nie obrazić ……...so as not to offend
g). właściciel z pewnością złoży życzenia ……...the … owner is sure to wish…
h). w pierwszy dzień świąt również pojawia się ……...Christmas Day also sees
i). zaczyna się (on) od tego, że ludzie usadowieni wokół stołu ciągną (ku sobie) crackers ……...It starts with people seated around the table pulling Christmas crackers
j). ze względu na to, że ludzie w celach dobroczynnych wskakują do zimnej wody ……...for groups of people to jump into the (cold) sea for charity

{mospagebreak}

3. Zadecyduj, czy poniższe zdania są prawdziwe (True) czy fałszywe (False)?

Advent calendar is a kind of toy. ……T/FT
Charity is an important component of Christmas celebrations. ……T/FT
Christmas card are not a part of festive decorations. ……T/FF
People usually work as much on Christmas Eve as on any other working day. ……T/FF
The most important day of Christmas is Christmas Eve. ……T/FF
The Queen addresses only British citizens in her Christmas message. ……T/FF
In the UK the religious aspect of Christmas is of less importance. ……T/FT
British society is generally open and tolerant towards ethnic and religious minorities. ……T/FT


Noworoczne powtórzenie (numery “IB” 1–11/ 2007)

Wykonaj poniższe zadania, korzystając z lekcji języka angielskiego w 2007r lub z pomocy słownika.

Dopasuj polskie i angielskie nazwy


1. plasterer
2. tiler
3. roofer
4. customs officer
5. surveyor
6. foreman


a. dekarz
b. majster
c. glazurnik
d. tynkarz
e. celnik
f. geodeta


……...3
……...6
……...2
……...1
……...4
……...5


Uzupełnij tłumaczenia następujących wyrażeń

stosować się do – c ……...omply with
przestrzegać – ……...ab ……...i d ……...e by
bhp – h ……...ealth and ……...safety
podnająć – s ……...u bc……...ontrac t
skierowany do – a ……...imed at
związki zawodowe – t……...rade un ……...io n ……...s
targi – t ……...rad e f ……...ai rs
przepływ ciepła – h ……...eat tr ……...ansfe r
zużycie energii – ……...en e ……...rgy
c ……...ons ……...um p ……...tion
zakres temperatur – t……...emp……...erat ……...ure r……...ang e
przyczyniać się do – c……...ontr ……...i b ……...u t……...e to
niepalny – n ……...o n-c……...om ……...bu st……...ible
most podwieszony – ……...s us……...pen ……...sion b……...ridge

Materiały budowlane. Wstaw brakujące wyrazy

pre-cast, weathering, expanded, thin, corrugated

1. beton prefabrykowany
……...pre-cast concrete
2. blacha falista - ……...corrugated steel
3. klej do płytek - ……...thin set
4. stal odporna na czynniki atmosferyczne – ……...weathering steel
5. styropian – ……...expanded polystyrene

Dopasuj do siebie fragmenty rozmów.

1. Can I have some samples? ……...c
2. Could you prepare a quotation for 1000 pieces? ……...b
3. This bag is too heavy to take on as hand luggage. You’re only allowed 5 kilos. ……...d
4. What are the terms of payment? ……...a

a). 30% in advance and the balance within 90 days.
b). Certainly. The unit price would be 50 Euros.
c). Here you are. We offer them in a range of colours and sizes.
d). Sorry, I didn’t realize.



Aneta Kaproń